I loved reading this article.
Andrew Gelman and Eric Loken
Abstract: Researcher degrees of freedom can lead to a multiple comparisons problem, even in settings where researchers perform only a single analysis on their data. The problem is there can be a large number of potential comparisons when the details of data analysis are highly contingent on data, without the researcher having to perform any conscious procedure of shing or examining multiple p-values. We discuss in the context of several examples of published papers where data-analysis decisions were theoretically-motivated based on previous literature, but where the details of data selection and analysis were not pre-specifed and, as a result, were contingent on data
It isn’t the final word, but it is amazing this conversation, started by Ed Leamer more than 30 years ago, is still going on.